Equal Opportunity Factors for Youth Unemployment in the EA Countries Data and Policy Analysis

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Economics, Zanzibar University, Zanzibar, Tanzania

2 International School of Zanzibar, Zanzibar University, Zanzibar, Tanzania


This paper analyses equal opportunity factors contributing to youth unemployment and provides working recommendations for further dialogue and engagement of youth in the EA countries. Data and policy analysis is based on the theory of 4-Es as propounded by the International Labour Organization and Youth Employment Network literature.
The field research survey focus group discussion, combined observation, and consultations with key informants were major research methods used in collecting secondary and primary data and information. Data analysis used non-parametric methods, mainly frequency and cross-tabulations.
The paper found that lack of equal opportunities contributes to youth unemployment. The main equal opportunity attributes include limited open-access application; unfair judgment; high and increasing corruption and prevalence of tribalism in the EA societies. Other factors are complex social, cultural norms and the existence of negative or biased religious beliefs.
The paper recommends enhanced equal employment in the labor market.  The specific policy strategies include the need to enhance open access application; institute a fair judicial system; ensure corruption-free; minimize negative effects of tribalism; enhance gender mainstreaming; consider positive social and cultural attributes and uphold religious systems in the labor market and employment systems.