Effective Utilization of Information Technology Services by Employees in Public Sector: A Study of Geita District Council Tanzania

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 School of Business, the University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania

2 Secondary School, Gieta District, Tanzania

Abstract

This study intended to assess the utilization of information technology services by employees in public sector through taking Geita District Council, Tanzania as a case study. The study aimed at examining the utilization of IT services as a tool to generate efficiency of work in order to find out IT services utilized by employees in the organization; it also investigates the role of IT sectors in developing the economy to pinpoint the problems that rise in regard to IT services and how far those problems are solved. The researcher used survey methodology to collect data and information using questionnaires and documents as tools in data collection. Participants involved in the study were managerial staff from departments and units found at Geita District Council. The collected data were analyzed by the help of SPSS software. The study identified that IT service in public sector plays a curcial role as it simplifies the procedures of processing, keeping, and recording of data. It enables the country to build a digital nervous system. Furthermore, the study observed that there are insufficient skilled system administrators in IT services, poor management as well as lack of training on system administration. The study recommends that District Councils should employ and train more system administrators, connecting all departments and units to the local network, establish adequate internet facilities, utilize internet facilities better, and provide backup service in order to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of IT.   

Keywords


Adesola, A. O. (1991). The Nigerian University Systems: Meeting the Challenges of Growth in Depressed Economy. Higher Education. 21 (1), 121-133
Akpan, P. I. (2003). Basic-needs to Globalization: Are ICTs the Missing Link?. Journal of Information Technology for Developmen. 10 (4), 261-274
Antonelli, C. (1991). The Diffusion of Advanced Telecommunications in Developing Countries, Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Anyamele, S. C. (2004). Institutional Management in Higher Education: A Study of Leadership Approaches to Quality Improvement in University Management-Nigerian and Finnish Cases, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Augustino (2000). Examination of the use of Information Technology Applications for online Searching, Unpublished MA (Information) Thesis: University of Dar-es-Salaam.
Best, J. W. and Kahn, J. V. (1998). Research Education, 8th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bradford, M. and Florin, J. (2003). Examining the Role of Innovation Diffusion Factors on the Implementation Success of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems. 4 (3), 205-225
Brailer, D. J. and Terasawa, E. L. (2003). Use and Adoption of Computer-Based Patient Records in the United States: A Review and Update, California Healthcare Foundation. March 28. Oakland, CA.
Brown, I. (2002). Individual and Technological Factors Affecting Perceived Ease of Use of Web Based Learning Technologies in A Developing Country. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 9 (5), 1-15
Burn, J. M. (1990). The Strategic Use of IT in Hong Kong Organizations: An Analysis of Applications in Small to Medium Sized Organizations, Proceedings of International Conference on IT.
Cerf, V. (1999). The Internet Is for Everyone. On the Internet, July–August, 8–9.
Cloke, C. and Sharif, S. (2001). Why Use Information and Communication Technology in Schools? Some Theoretical and Practical Issues. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education. 10 (1/2), 7-18
Cooper, R. B. and Zmud, R. W. (1990). Information Technology Implementation Research–A Technological Diffusion Approach. Management Science. 36 (2), 123-139
Corn Ford, T. and Smithson, S. (1996). Project Research in Information Systems: A Student’s Guide. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
COSTECH (2003). Progress Report to International Development Research Centre (IDRC) on Sengerema Telecentre Project, Evaluation Report to the Project of 2003.
Darkwa, O. K. and Eskow, S. (2000). Creating an African Virtual Community College: Issues and Challenges. First Monday. 5 (11)
Darkwa, O. and Mazibuko, F. (2000). Creating Virtual Learning Communities in Africa: Challenges and Prospects. First Monday. 5 (5)
Davis, M. and Danning, K. (2001). Transition to Virtual Learning. Association for Learning Technology Journal. 9 (2), 64-75
Dimaggio, P. J. and Powell, W. W. (1983). The Iron Cage Revisited - Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields. American Sociological Review. 48 (2), 147-160
Dogac, A., Kabak, Y., Laleci, G., Sinir, S., Yildiz, A., Kirbas, S. and Gurcan, Y. (2004). Semantically Enriched Web Services for the Travel Industry. SIGMOD Rec. 33 (3), 21-27
Ebeling, M. (2003). The New Dawn: Black Agency in Cyberspace. Radical History Review. 87, 96-108
Economist (2006). From Online to Helpline. 380 (8489), 58
Eder, L. B. and Igbaria, M. (2001). Determinants of Intranet Diffusion and Infusion. Omega-International Journal of Management Science. 29 (3), 233-242
Ezewu, E. (1983). Sociology of Education. Lagos: Longman Group.
Fielden, J. (1998). Collaboration in Administrative Computing: The Issues. Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU), ABCD. 134, 18-21
Galloway, L., Mochrie, R. and Deakins, D. (2004). ICT-Enabled Collectivity as a Positive Rural Business Strategy. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research. 10 (4), 247-259
Garzotto, F., Paolini, P., Speroni, M., Proll, B., Retschitzegger, W. and Schwinger, W. (2004). Ubiquitous Access to Cultural Tourism Portals. Paper Presented to Database and Expert Systems Applications, 15th International Workshop on (DEXA'04), Zaragoza, Spain, August 30 - September 03. , 67-72
Gbamanja P. T. (1989). Essentials of Curriculum and Instruction, Theory and Practice. Port Harcourt: Pam Unique Publishing Company.
Gibbs, L. J. and Kraemer, K. L. (2004). A Cross- Country Investigation of the Determinants of Scope of E-Commerce Use: An Institutional Approach. Electronic Markets. 14 (2), 124-137
Gorard, S., Selwyn, N. and Williams, S. (2002). Establishing an Inclusive Society: Technology, Social Exclusion and Uk Government policymaking.
Gumbo, S. D. (2003). Utilization of ICT as Tools and Resources for Teaching and Learning at the Midlands State University in Zimbabwe. in Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference on Improving Cooperation among Researchers, Policy Formulators and Implementers of Policy in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. SAARMSTE. , 47-55
Gurau, C. (2002). Online Banking in Transition Economies: The Implementation and Development of Online Banking Systems in Romania. International Journal of Bank Marketing. 20 (6), 286-296
Gromov, R. (1995). History of the Internet and www: The roads and Crossroads of Internet History (November 19, 2004).
Hage, J. (1980). Theories of Organizations: Forms, Process and Transformation, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Heeks, R. (1999). Development Informatics: Information and Communication Technologies, Poverty and Development, Institute for Development Policy and Management. Manchester.
Hergenhahn, B. R. and Olson, M. H. (1997). An Introduction to Theories of Learning, 5th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hsu, P. F., Kraemer, K. L. and Dunkle, D. (2006). Determinants of E-business Use in Us Firms. International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 10 (4), 9-45
Ishumi, A. and Suzgo, N. (2002). Philosophy of Education: An Introduction to Concepts, Principles and Practice. Dar-es-Salaam University Press Ltd.
Iskandar, B. Y., Kurokawa, S. and Leblanc, L. J. (2001). Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce from First - and Second -Tier Automotive Suppliers’ Perspectives: A Preliminary Analysis for Hypotheses Generation. Technovation. 21 (2001), 719-731
Janesick, V. J. (1998). The Dance of Qualitative Research Design: Metaphor, Methodolatry, and Meaning. In Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds.), Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Sage Publications, International Educational and professional Publisher, Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi.
Joppe, M. (2000). The Research Process (February 25, 1998).
Kadison, M., Lieu, K. C. and Levin, K. (1998). On-line Retail Strategies, Forrester Report 1/1 (April 1998).
Kaino, L. M. (2004). Analysis of ICT Availability: Utilization and Policy in Botswana Schools. African Journal of Educational Studies (AJES). 3 (1), 287-308
Khandwalla, P. (1970). Environment and the Organization Structure of Firms, McGill University, Montreal, Faculty of Management.
Kamel, S. (1995). Information Superhighways, a Potential for Socioeconomic and Cultural Development. In M. Khosrowpour ed., The 6th International IRMA Conference Proceedings: Managing Information and Communications in a Changing Global Environment. , 115-124
Kamel, S. (1998). Building the African Information Infrastructure. In P. Banerjee, R. Hackney, G. Dhillon, and R. Jain ed., Business Information Technology Management: Closing the International Divide, New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. , 118-144
Kamel, S. (2001). The Information Society in Egypt. In G. Nulens, N. Hafkin, L. V. Audehove, and B. Cammaerts, ed., The Digital Divide in Developing Countries: Towards an Information Society in Africa, Brussels: Brussels University Press. , 299-313
Knowlton, D. S. and Knowlton, H. M. (2001). The Context and Content of Online Discussions: Making Cyber Discussions Viable for Secondary School Curriculum. American Secondary Education. 29 (4), 38-52
Kombo, D. K. and Troup, D. L. A. (2006). Proposal and Thesis Writing: An Introduction. Nairobi: Paulines Publications.
Koontz, H. and O’Donnel, W. (2007). Principles of Management, New Delhi: TMH.
Kouakou, K. (2003). Human Capital Development, Education and ICT and Africa, Africa Dot Edu. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Kuntoro, R. D. and Al-Hawemdeh, S. (2003). E-Learning in Higher in Institution in Indonesia. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 2 (4), 361-374
Leidner, D. E. and Jarvenpaa, S. L. (1993). The Information Age Confronts Education: Case Studies on Electronic Classroom. Commonwealth Higher Education Services. 4 (1), 24-54
Li, Y. H. (2008). An Empirical Investigation on the Determinants of E Procurement Adoption in Chinese Manufacturing Enterprises. 2008 International Conference on Management Science and Engineering (15th), California, USA, Vol.: 1/2, Conference Proceedings. , 32-37
Longstaff, T. R. W. (1995). Computer Recording, Analysis, and Interpretation, New York: Oxford University Press.
Lund, H. (1998). Joining Hands: A Survey of Non- Academic Collaboration between Commonwealth Universities, Commonwealth Higher Education Service.
McCormick, P. (2002). Internet Access in Africa: A Critical Review of Public Policy Issues. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 22 (1/2), 140-144
Miller, R. H. and Sim, I. (2004). Physicians’ Use of Electronic Medical Records: Barriers and Solutions. Health Affairs. 23 (2), 116-126
Moodley, S. (2002). Connecting to Global Markets in Internet Age: The Case of South Africa Wooden Furniture Producers. Development Southern Africa. 19 (5), 641-658
Nua Research (2000). How Many Online?.
Nwuke, K. (2003). Higher Education, Economic Growth, and Information Technology in Africa, Some Challenges and Issues. Africa dot Edu., New Delhi: Tata McGraw- Hill.
OECD (2002). The Impacts of Electronic Commerce on Business: Summary.
DSTI/ICCP/IE (2002). 5/FINAL, OECD, Paris.
Okpaku, J. O. (2003). Information and Communication Technologies for African Development—an Assessment of Progress and Challenges Ahead, United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force ed., Series 2, New York: United Nations.
Oliver, M., Bradley, C. and Boyle, T. (2001). The Distributed Development of Quality Courses for A Virtual University. Association of Learning Technology Journal. 9 (2), 16-27
Osunkunle, O. (2008). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Higher Education in South Africa: An Inter-Institutional Analysis. A paper presented at the International Conference on Technology, Education and Development. Valencia, Spain.
Porter, E. M. and Millar, E. V. (1983). How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage, New York, USA.
Powell, W. and Dimaggio, P. (1991). The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
Press, L. (1999). Connecting Villages: The Grameen Bank Success Story. On the Internet, July–August. , 32-37
Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed., New York: The Free Press.
Sala, N. (2004). Web Based Teaching and Learning: Two Swiss Examples, Proceedings of the 2004 IRMA International Conference, USA.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2000). Research Methods for Business Studies, 2nd ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Sciadas, G. (2002). Monitoring the Digital Divide, An ORBICOM-CIDA Project Report. Quebec, Canada: National Research Council Canada (NRC).
Scott, W. R. (2001). Institutions and Organizations, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.
Scott, W. R. and Christensen, S. (1995). The Institutional Construction of Organizations: International and Longitudinal Studies, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.
Scupola, A. (2002). Adoption Issues of Business-to- Business Internet Commerce in European SMEs, in Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 200.
Seels, B. and Richey, R. C. (1994). Instructional Technology: The Definition and Domains of the Field, Association for Educational Communications and Technology: Washington DC.
Sharma, P., Carson, D. and DeLacy, T. (2000). National Online Tourism Policy Initiatives for Australia. Journal of Travel Research,. 39 (2), 157-162
Sheldon, P. J. (1998). Tourism Information Technology, New York: CABI Publishing.
Shelly, G. B., Cashman, T. J. and Vermaat, M. E. (2002). Discovering Computers 2003: Concepts for a Digital World Complete, Thomson Learning, USA.
Sibiya, T. G. (2003). Information and Communication Technology and Education. In Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference on Improving Cooperation among Researchers, Policy Formulators and Implementers of Policy In Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, SAARMSTE. Putsoa, B. ed.. , 26-32
Silverman, D. (1993). Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analyzing Talk, Text and Interaction, Sage Publications: Londres.
Sirimanne, S. (1996). The Information Technology Revolution: What about the Developing Countries? CIDA International Development Information Centre: Development Express, No. 04. Paper Published on the World Wide Web.
Smith, M. D. and Brynjolfsson, E. (2001). Consumer Decision-Making at an Internet Shopbot: Brand Still Matters. The Journal of Industrial Economics,. 49 (4), 541-558
Sparrow, M. K. (1992). Informing Enforcement, Informatization and the Public Sector, University of Manchester, Precinct Centre, Manchester, M13 9GH, UK.
Stake, Robert E. (1998). Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln ed., Sage Publications, International and Professional Publisher, Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi.
Srivastava, M. and Raghunathan, V. (2008). Embedded Computing: A Systems Approach (Series on Integrated Circuits and Systems), New York: Springer Verlag.
Starbuck, W. H. (1976). Organizations and Their Environments, Chicago: R. and McNally.
Steinberg, J. (2003). Information Technology and Development Beyond. The Brookings Review. 21 (2), 45-48
Teo, H. H., Wei, K. K. and Benbasat, I. (2003). Predicting Intention to Adopt Interorganizational Linkages: An Institutional Perspective. MIS Quarterly. 27 (1), 19-49
Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in Action, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Thong, J. Y. L. An Integrated Model of Information Systems Adoption in Small Businesses. Journal of Management Information Systems. 15 (4), 187-214
Tornatzky, L. and Fleischer, M. and Chakrabarti, A. K. (1990). The Process of Technology Innovation, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books.
Valida, A. C., Leng, A. C., Kasiran, M. K., Hashim, S. and Suradi, Z. A. (1994). A Survey of Information Technology Utilization among Business Organizations in Malaysia, Proceedings of International Conference on IT, KL: Malaysia.
Vaus, D. (1996). Survey in Social Research, 4th ed. London: UCL Press Ltd.
Wenn, A., Tatnall, A., Sellitto, C., Darbyshire, P. and Burgess, S. (2002). A Sociotechnical Investigation of Factors Affecting I.T. Adoption by Rural Gps, in Information Technology in Regional Areas, Using IT: Make IT Happen, Online, Rockhampton, Queensland Australia.
Werthner, H. and Klien, S. (1999). Information, Technology and Tourism: A Challenging Relationship, Springer Computer Science, Vienna, Austria: Springer.
Werthner, H. and Klein, S. (1999). ICT and the Changing Landscape of Global Tourism Distribution. Electronic Markets. 9 (4), 252-262
Wilkins, K. (2000). Redeveloping Communication for Social Change: Power, Theory, and Practice, Boulder: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
World Bank (2003). ICT and MDGs—A World Bank Group Perspective, Washington D.C.: World Bank Group.
World Tourism Organization (1999). Marketing Tourism Destinations Online: Strategies for the Information Age, Madrid: Unpublished Report.
Zhu, K., Kraemer, K. L. and Xu, S. (2006b). The Process of Innovation Assimilation by Firms in Different Countries: A Technology Diffusion Perspective on E-Business. Management Science. 52 (10), 1557-1576
Zikmund, W. M. (1984). Business Research Methods. Chicago: The Dryden Press.